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1. What You Will Learn

In this guide you will learn how to use Sub Workflows in the PAK Editor.
Sub Workflows help to reduce redundancy in Workflows.
You can reuse them in other Workflows and thus, increase the readability of them.

2. Prerequisites

The functionality for Sub Workflows is only available if you have a professional or ultimate licence.
Otherwise, the feature is locked.

To complete this guide you will need

  • Roughly 10 minutes

  • The PAK Editor ( Download )

3. Defining the Sub Workflow Repository

By default, no Sub Workflows are stored.
In order to use specific Sub Workflows you have to add the corresponding repository that is of type „Workflows“ or „Commands & Workflows“.
How to add a Workflow repository is described in chapter BPMN Editor – Manage Available Commands and Workflows via Repositories.

You can also add a Workflow repository during the Sub Workflow adding. How to do so is described in the following.

You can only use Workflows as Sub Workflows if they are uploaded to a remote repository.
It is not possible to use local workflows for Sub Workflows.

4. Add Sub Workflows to a Workflow

In order to be able to use Sub Workflows open a new Workflow and select the „Sub Workflow“ element in the palette on the left side of the PAK Editor.

Editor Add Subworkflow Element
Figure 1. Add the Sub Workflow element

After adding the „Sub Workflow“ element, select it like shown in the figure below.
Now you can change the name of the element (2) and select the desired workflow (3).

Editor Added Subworkflow
Figure 2. Sub Workflow

In case no Workflow repository was added/selected in advance no workflows will show up.
But you can add them by clicking on „Add workflow repositories here“.
Further information about repository management can be found in chapter BPMN Editor – Manage Available Commands and Workflows via Repositories.

Editor Open Sub Workflow empty
Figure 3. Open a Sub Workflow – No Workflow repository found

After enabling at least one repository that contains Workflows a list of all existing Workflows will be shown.
You can either search for a specific one in the free text field (1) or navigate through the tree (2).
In case you cannot find a specific Workflow it might be useful to reload the repository (3).

Editor Open Sub Workflow tree blank
Figure 4. Open a Sub Workflow – Workflows found

After you found your desired Workflow (1), click on it.
Another window will open up that shows the available versions for the Workflow.
To open a specific version you can either double click it (2) or select it and click on „Choose“ (3).

Editor Open Sub Workflow tree
Figure 5. Adding a new Workflow repository

After selecting the correct version it will be displayed in the „Properties“ window of the Sub Workflow (1 & 2).

Editor Successfully Added Workflow
Figure 6. Successfully added a Sub Workflow

5. Input for/ Output of a Sub Workflow

The Dataflow Analysis is also analysing the Sub Workflow and thus, e.g. missing input fields are displayed in the Dataflow Analysis tab of the PAK Editor(1).
Input fields of a Workflow that are usually filled by the Datastore must be given by the main Workflow when used as Sub Workflow.
Every key written by a Workflow represents the outputs of a Sub Workflow if used as such.

The usage of output variables can be handled in the Properties window of the Sub Workflow (2).
If an output field is checked it can be used in the Commands or Sub Workflows that are logically placed behind.

Editor Sub Workflow In Outputs
Figure 7. Input and Output Variables

Constant and key mappings work analog to usual commands. For more information see the chapters How to Define and Use Basic Mappings and How Use Advanced Mappings (Interpolations).

In case the output is neither checked nor assigned in the key mapping, the output is ignored in the following procedure of the Workflow.

Please note that in case of using a key mapping for output fields (1) this field will be disabled in the „Sub Workflow Outputs“ (2).
But even if the output is disabled, the values will still be propagated but with the field name specified in the key mapping.
Editor Mapped Output
Figure 8. Input and Output Variables

6. Open the Sub Workflow within a Workflow

To open the content of a Sub Workflow double click on the element within your main Workflow.
The Sub Workflow will be opened in a new tab of the Editor and can be edit there.

Sonatype Nexus

PAK features connectors and commands for Sonatype Nexus. This means the software can directly interact with Nexus repositories for storing and managing artifacts. Through these connectors, PAK can automate tasks like uploading binaries or retrieving dependencies, ensuring efficient artifact management within Nexus.


PAK has connectors and commands for Jenkins. This allows the software to directly communicate with Jenkins servers, enabling the automation of CI/CD (Continuous Integration/Continuous Deployment) tasks. Through these connectors, PAK can trigger builds, fetch build statuses, or manage job configurations, streamlining the CI/CD processes within Jenkins.

Git Hub

PAK possesses connectors and commands for GitHub. This means the software can interface directly with GitHub repositories, facilitating actions like code pushes, pull requests, or issue tracking. Through these connectors, PAK can automate various GitHub operations, enhancing code collaboration and repository management.

Atlassian Confluence

PAK is equipped with connectors and commands for Atlassian Confluence. This enables the software to directly interact with Confluence spaces and pages. Through these connectors, PAK can automate actions such as creating, updating, or retrieving documentation, ensuring efficient content management and collaboration within Confluence.


PAK features connectors and commands for Codebeamer. This allows the software to seamlessly integrate with Codebeamer’s ALM (Application Lifecycle Management) platform. Through these connectors, PAK can automate tasks like issue tracking, test management, or requirements tracing, enhancing the coordination and management of software development processes.

JFrog Artifactory

PAK has connectors and commands for JFrog Artifactory. This means the software can directly interface with Artifactory repositories, enabling actions like artifact storage, retrieval, and management. Through these connectors, PAK can automate tasks such as deploying artifacts or managing repository configurations, streamlining the integration and management of binary artifacts within Artifactory.

Amazon Web Services (AWS)

PAK has connectors and commands for Amazon Web Services (AWS). This means the software possesses specialized interfaces to directly interact with AWS services and execute actions on the AWS platform. Through these connectors, PAK can automate AWS-specific commands, such as launching EC2 instances, managing S3 buckets, or configuring Lambda functions. This allows for efficient integration, management, and automation of AWS resources and services directly from PAK.

Atlassian Jira

PAK features integration tools and capabilities for Atlassian Jira. These tools allow for a direct connection to Jira and the execution of specific actions. Using these integration tools, PAK can automate Jira actions such as adding comments or changing ticket priorities, ensuring seamless handling and coordination of Jira processes.


PAK has connectors and commands for Git. This means it has interfaces to directly communicate with Git and execute actions. Through these connectors, the software can automate Git commands such as retrieving changes or creating branches, enabling efficient integration and management of Git tasks.

Generic Human Tasks

PAK offers you a standard set of commands which require creative input from the user. Enables you to start with automating your workflows, that still need abit of human input.

Generic Commands

PAK offers a standard set of commands giving you the first steps to automate your workflows.

Nexus Maven Command Pool

Nexus is an artifact repository manager for storing binaries, libraries, and artifacts, supporting formats like Maven. Maven, a software project management tool, is based on the Project Object Model (POM) and allows developers to consistently define projects and dependencies. Our Command Pool offers commands for interactions between Maven and Nexus, such as artifact uploads or dependency retrieval.

Artifactory Maven Command Pool

Artifactory allows developers to store, retrieve, and manage binary files and artifacts, providing a
central source for all binaries used in a development process. Apache Maven is a software project
management and comprehension tool that enables developers to consistently describe a project and
its dependencies. Our Command Pool offers a collection of commands used to facilitate interactions
between Maven and Artifactory, such as uploading artifacts or retrieving dependencies.

Open API Command Interpreter

The OpenApi Command Interpreter allows you the automatic parsing of commands from an OpenApi defintion. No additional code needs to be written anymore, just add the address to the definition and our framework does the rest!

Kotlin Command Interpreter

The Kotlin Command Interpreter allows you the parsing and execution of commands within a Kotlin environment to automate various tasks or processes.

Bpmn Interpreter

Workflows come in many shapes and forms. The BPMN (Business Process Model and Notation) Interpreter enables the parsing of worklows defined in the BPMN format into the PAK intern model.

Human Task Interpreter

The Human Task Interpreter allows you the parsing and running of commands within a HTML and Javascript environment. Use this to build commands which need the creative input of a workflow user!

Java Command Interpreter

The Java Command Interpreter allows you the parsing and execution of commands within a Java
environment to automate various tasks or processes.


The heart of the PAK-Framework. Contains the means to run workflows with the PAK engine, but also the possibility to enrich the frameworks interfaces with your own implementations and solutions.

RocksDB Persistence

Data that is generated by a workflow run needs to be saved for short or longer terms. Our solution to the Persistence Interface of the PAK-Framework is to use the high-performance, key-value based RocksDB developed by Facebook.

PAK online

PAK Online is a web based application and provides an Open API based REST API. It enables you to upload workflows and run them periodically or on REST demand.

Command Line App

Run tasks and workflows on the console or as part of a CI/CD Pipeline with our Command Line Interface.

Workflow Editor

With our specially developed editor, a wide variety of workflows can be easily modeled in the wide known BPMN process format.

Workflow Executor

The Workflow Executor is the application to run your workflows. It features a multilingual UI and easy managment of your favorite workflows.


We offer a community website where you can exchange ideas and support each other. For our Pro packages we also offer full support via email.